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THE NAVY OF XERXES
(Herodotus, The Persian Wars, VII, 89-99)

1,207 trieremes
Phoenicians and Syrians of Palestine: 300 (Phoenicians were the best sailors of the fleet)
Egyptians: 200; Cypriots: 150; Cilicians: 100; Phamphylians: 30
Lycians: 50; Dorians of Asia: 30; Carians: 70; Ioninans: 100
Islanders: 17; Aeolians: 60; Hellespontians: 100; Soldiers(Marines)Persians, Medes, Sacans
3000 auxiliary ships: 30 oared and 50 oared galleys; light galleys; transports
Commanders of the Fleet:
Persians: Ariabignes (son of Darius, half-brother of Xerxes) commander of Ionian and Carian ships; Prexaspes; Megabazus;
Achaemenes (son of Darius, brother of Xerxes) commander of Egyptian ships


Artemisia, Queen of Halicarnassos (Ionia)
Widow, daughter of Lygdamis, mother of a grown son, of Halicarnassian and Cretan stock. She Commanded five triremes. Next to the Phoenician (Sidonian) ships, hers were the most famous ships in the fleet
She was an Important advisor to Xerxes
After defeat at Salamis, advised him to leave his army in Greece with Mardonius and return to Persia. She was given the responsibility of conducting Xerxes’ children back to Persia

a trireme